Sunday, April 20, 2014

man-pages-3.65 is released

I've released man-pages-3.64. The release tarball is available on kernel.org. The browsable online pages can be found on man7.org. The Git repository for man-pages is available on kernel.org.

Aside from a number of minor improvements and fixes to various pages, the notable changes in man-pages-3.65 are the following:

  • A new inet_net_pton(3) page describes the inet_net_pton() and inet_net_ntop() library functions.
  • The fallocate(2) page adds documentation for the FALLOC_FL_COLLAPSE_RANGE operation added in Linux 3.15.
  • The prctl(2) page adds documentation of the PR_SET_THP_DISABLE and PR_GET_THP_DISABLE operations added in Linux 3.15.
  • Peng Haitao continued the task of adding thread-safety information to various man pages.

Sunday, April 6, 2014

man-pages-3.64 is released

I've released man-pages-3.64. The release tarball is available on kernel.org. The browsable online pages can be found on man7.org. The Git repository for man-pages is available on kernel.org.

Aside from a number of minor improvements and fixes to various pages, the notable changes in man-pages-3.64 are the following:

  • I've written a new open_by_name_at(2) page that documents the name_to_handle_at() and open_by_handle_at() system calls that were added to Linux in version 2.6.39.
  • I've made substantial updates to the inotify(7) man page to document some of the limitations, complexities, and pitfalls of the inotify API.

Tuesday, March 18, 2014

man-pages-3.63 is released

I've released man-pages-3.63. The release tarball is available on kernel.org. The browsable online pages can be found on man7.org. The Git repository for man-pages is available on kernel.org.

Most notable among the changes in the release are many new and modified pages related to locales. Among the changes in man-pages-3.63 are the following:

  • I've written new pages that document the APIs used to create, modify, use, duplicate, and free locale objects: newlocale(3), duplocale(3), and uselocale(3).
  • I added documentation of various functions that are analogues of traditional locale-dependent functions, but differ in that they allow the caller to explicitly specify a locale. In each case, the documentation was added to the existing page for the traditional functions.
    • isalnum_l(3), isalpha_l(3), isblank_l(3), iscntrl_l(3), isdigit_l(3), isgraph_l(3), islower_l(3), isprint_l(3), ispunct_l(3), isspace_l(3), isupper_l(3), isxdigit_l(3), and isascii_l(3) in isalpha(3).
    • strerror_l(3) in strerror(3).
    • toupper_l(3) and tolower_l(3) in toupper(3).
    • towlower_l(3) in towlower(3).
    • towupper_l(3) in towupper(3).
    • In addition, I also rewrote the descriptions of towupper(3) and towlower(3) to be simpler and (I hope) clearer.
  • I've added documentation of the following locale categories in locale(7): LC_ADDRESS, LC_IDENTIFICATION, LC_MEASUREMENT, LC_NAME, LC_PAPER, and LC_TELEPHONE.
  • NOTE: There are many more locale-related APIs that remain to be documented (basically following the same pattern as in the above pages), as can be seen in the man-pages list of of missing pages. Assistance would be very welcome!

Wednesday, March 12, 2014

man-pages-3.62 is released

I've released man-pages-3.62. The release tarball is available on kernel.org. The browsable online pages can be found on man7.org. The Git repository for man-pages is available on kernel.org.

Among the more notable changes in man-pages-3.62 are the following:

  • A new locale(1) page documents the locale command provided by glibc.
  • The locale(5) page adds documentation of the (GNU-specific) LC_ADDRESS, LC_IDENTIFICATION, LC_MEASUREMENT, LC_NAME, LC_PAPER, and LC_TELEPHONE locale categories. Many other details in this page were also added or improved.
  • Many pieces of information in the feature_test_macros(7) page were updated or improved.
  • Again, Peng Haitao continued adding notes on thread-safety to various manual pages.

Wednesday, February 26, 2014

man-pages-3.61 is released

I've released man-pages-3.61. The release tarball is available on kernel.org. The browsable online pages can be found on man7.org. The Git repository for man-pages is available on kernel.org.

This was a relatively small release. Among the more notable changes in man-pages-3.61 are the following:

  • As ever, Peng Haitao continued adding notes on thread-safety to various manual pages.
  • A note from Christoph Hellwig prompted me to perform a task that has been queued for a while: merging the text of the man pages for the "directory file descriptor" APIs into their corresponding traditional pages. When the "directory file descriptor" pages were originally written (mostly in 2006), the APIs were not part of POSIX and (in most cases) were not available on other systems. So, it made some sense to wall them off into their own separate pages. Eight years later, with the APIs now all in POSIX (except scandirat()), it is much more sensible to document the newer APIs alongside their traditional counterparts, so that the newer APIs are not "hidden", and the reader can more easily see the differences between the APIs.

    Thus, the text of 14 pairs of pages has been merged, and the "merged from" pages have been converted to links to the "merged to" pages. Along the way, a few other fixes were made to the pages, as noted below. The resulting merged pages are: access(2), chmod(2), chown(2), link(2), mkdir(2), mknod(2), open(2), readlink(2), rename(2), stat(2), symlink(2), unlink(2), mkfifo(3), and scandir(3).

    One page that did not undergo such a change was utimensat(2), which is different enough from utime(2) that it warrants a separate page. Unlike the other pages, the utimensat(2) page was also already self-contained, rather than defining itself in terms of differences from the traditional API as the other pages did.
In addition, smaller improvements and fixes have been made to many other pages.

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

Further Linux/UNIX System Programming courses scheduled

I've scheduled two further public iterations of my Linux/UNIX System Programming course in Munich, Germany, in April and June, and I hope to announce a San Francisco date soon as well. (I'm also available to give on-demand tailored versions of the course onsite at customer premises, in Europe, the US, and further afield.)
          
The 5-day course is intended for programmers developing system-level, embedded, or network applications for Linux and UNIX systems, or programmers porting such applications from other operating systems (e.g., Windows) to Linux or UNIX. The course is based on my book, The Linux Programming Interface (TLPI), and covers topics such as low-level file I/O; signals and timers; creating processes and executing programs; POSIX threads programming; interprocess communication (pipes, FIFOs, message queues, semaphores, shared memory),  network programming (sockets), and server design.
     
The course has a lecture+lab format, and devotes substantial time to working on some carefully chosen programming exercises that put the "theory" into practice. Students receive a copy of TLPI, along with a 600-page course book containing the more than 1000 slides that are used in the course. A reading knowledge of C is assumed; no previous system programming experience is needed.

Some useful links for anyone interested in the course:

Questions about the course? Email me via training@man7.org.

Sunday, February 16, 2014

man-pages-3.59 and man-pages-3.60 released

I've released man-pages-3.59. The release tarball is available on kernel.org. The browsable online pages can be found on man7.org. The Git repository for man-pages is available on kernel.org.

The sole change in this release is the conversion of various man pages that contained non-ASCII characters, as well as the changelog, to UTF-8 encoding, a task completed thanks largely to some scripts provided by Peter Schiffer.

Update, 2014-02-18: turns out that a couple of section 7 pages had encoding errors added in man-pages-3.59. So, I've decided to make a quick small 3.60 release that fixes those issues, and includes a few other unrelated minor fixes.

Tuesday, February 11, 2014

man-pages-3.58 is released

I've released man-pages-3.58. The release tarball is available on kernel.org. The browsable online pages can be found on man7.org. The Git repository for man-pages is available on kernel.org.

This was a relatively small release. Among the more notable changes in man-pages-3.58 are the following:

  • The pipe(2) man page adds documentation of the new O_DIRECT flag that was implemented for pipe2() in Linux 3.4.
  • Daniel Borkmann added a description of the PACKET_QDISC_BYPASS socket option to the packet(7) man page.
  • The recv(2) man page underwent some reworking to add some details and make its structure more comprehensible.
  • And, as ever, Peng Haitao continued adding notes on thread-safety to various manual pages.
In addition, smaller improvements and fixes have been made to many other pages.

Friday, January 24, 2014

man-pages-3.57 is released

I've released man-pages-3.57. The release tarball is available on kernel.org. The browsable online pages can be found on man7.org. The Git repository for man-pages is available on kernel.org.

Among the more notable changes in man-pages-3.57 are the following:

  • The open(2) manual page adds documentation of the O_TMPFILE flag, which provides a race-free method of creating unnamed temporary files. Such temporary files can, if desired, later be linked into the filesystem using linkat(2), after  being populated and adjusted to have to have the desired filesystem attributes (ownership, permissions, etc.). Thanks to Andy Lutomirski for providing the basis for that documentation.
  • Vince weaver continues doing good work updating the perf_event_open(2) manual page, this time adding (with the help of Andi Kleen) documentation of the PERF_SAMPLE_TRANSACTION operation added in Linux 3.13.
  • Andrey Vagin added documentation of the PTRACE_PEEKSIGINFOPTRACE_GETSIGMASK, and PTRACE_SETSIGMASK operations to the ptrace(2) manual page.
  • Eliezer Tamir added documentation of the SO_BUSY_POLL socket option to the socket(7) manual page.
  • I added documentation of the TCP_USER_TIMEOUT and TCP_CONGESTION socket options to the tcp(7) manual page.
  • Peng Haitao continued adding notes on thread-safety to various manual pages.
In addition, smaller improvements and fixes have been made to many other pages.

Wednesday, January 22, 2014

Announcing POSIX.1-2013 man pages for Linux

The manual pages produced by the Linux man-pages project attempt to document deviations between Linux behavior and the POSIX.1 standard. However, the pages are no substitute for the standard itself.

In 2004, the IEEE and The Open Group decided to grant permission to the  Linux man-pages project to distribute parts of the then-current version of POSIX.1 in manual page format. That decision provided an extremely valuable resource for Linux programmers who wanted to write applications that are portable across UNIX systems. Evidence of that value has been demonstrated by regular requests in the last few years that the project should update its copy of the POSIX manual pages to the latest version provided by The Austin Group (the umbrella group that works on development of the POSIX.1 standard).

We are pleased to announce that, once again, the IEEE and The Open Group have kindly granted the Linux man-pages permission to distribute extracts from the latest version of the POSIX.1 standard:

IEEE Std 1003.1, 2013 Edition, Standard for Information Technology--Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 7, Copyright (C) 2013 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open Group.
(For those curious about the "2013" designation, this is POSIX.1-2008 with the 2013 Technical Corrigendum 1 applied.)

Thanks to some excellent scripting work by Felix Janda, the source files supplied by IEEE and The Open Group have been cleanly converted to  "man" format. The result is that portions of the standard are now
made available for easy reference  as (1139!) manual pages. Those pages are divided into three sections:
  • Section 0p = POSIX headers (specifications for header files)
  • Section 1p = POSIX utilities (i.e., specifications shell commands)
  • Section 3p = POSIX functions (specifications for functions)
Tarballs containing the pages can be found at https://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/docs/man-pages/man-pages-posix/man-pages-posix-2013-a.tar.gz and https://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/docs/man-pages/man-pages-posix/man-pages-posix-2013-a.tar.xz

Finally, please note that all pages carry the following disclaimer:
In the event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee document. The original Standard can be obtained online at http://www.unix.org/online.html.

Any typographical or formatting errors that appear in this page are most likely to have been introduced during the conversion of the source files to man page format. To report such errors, see https://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/reporting_bugs.html.

Saturday, January 11, 2014

man-pages-3.56 is released

I've released man-pages-3.56. The release tarball is available on kernel.org. The browsable online pages can be found on man7.org. The Git repository for man-pages is available on kernel.org.

Among the more notable changes in man-pages-3.56 are the following:

  • A new vdso(7) page by Mike Frysinger explains many details of the virtual DSO that the Linux kernel maps into each user process.
  • The man-pages(7) adds a STYLE GUIDE section that provides a number of style guidelines specific to man pages.
  • Thanks to an idea and patch from David Malcolm, the dangerous gets(3) function (which is removed in the C11 standard) is documented alone in its own man page, rather than sitting in a man page with a number of otherwise safe functions (the functions now placed in the new fgetc(3) man page).
  • Willem de Bruijn has added documentation of a number of socket options to the packet(7) man page.

In addition, smaller improvements and fixes have been made to many other pages.

Monday, December 30, 2013

man-pages-3.55 is released

I've released man-pages-3.55. The release tarball is available on kernel.org. The browsable online pages can be found on man7.org. The Git repository for man-pages is available on kernel.org.

This changes in man-pages-3.55 consist mainly of various smaller fixes to a wide range of pages. Other than that, Vince Weaver continued his frequent updates to the perf_event_open(2) page, and Peng Haitao continued noting the thread-safety of various functions (in all, nearly 150 man pages now contain information on thread-safety, thanks to Peng Haitao's work).

Monday, September 23, 2013

man-pages-3.54 is released

I've released man-pages-3.54. The release tarball is available on kernel.org. The browsable online pages can be found on man7.org. The Git repository for man-pages is available on kernel.org.

This changes in man-pages-3.54 consist mainly of various smaller fixes to a wide range of pages. Other than that, several more pages add information on thread-safety, thanks to the ongoing work of Peng Haitao.

Linux/UNIX System Programming course, Munich, October 2013

I will be running another iteration of my Linux/UNIX System Programming course in Munich, Germany, during the week of 21-25 October 2013. The course is intended for programmers developing system-level, embedded, or network applications for Linux and UNIX systems, or programmers porting such applications from other operating systems (e.g., Windows) to Linux or UNIX. Among the topics covered in the course are low-level file I/O, signals, timers, creating processes and executing programs, programming with POSIX threads, interprocess communication (pipes, FIFOs, message queues, semaphores, shared memory), and network programming using sockets. You can expect to work fairly hard (and also learn a lot) during the week

For detailed information about the content of the course, prerequisites, and other details, see http://man7.org/training/.

In addition to course materials, all participants will receive a copy of my book, The Linux Programming Interface.

The course will be priced (lower than usual) at 2000 euro plus VAT, and the class size will be kept quite small (I've yet to determine if the maximum will be 6 or 8). If you are interested in the course, please email me at training@man7.org and I'll send you information for course registration. Questions regarding the course can be sent to the same address.

Thursday, August 8, 2013

man-pages-3.53 is released

I've released man-pages-3.53. The release tarball is available on kernel.org. The browsable online pages can be found on man7.org. The Git repository for man-pages is available on kernel.org.

Aside from a number of minor improvements and fixes to various pages, notable changes in man-pages-3.53 include the following:

  • A new restart_syscall(2) page documents the restart_syscall() system call. 
  • The open(2) page adds documentation of the O_PATH flag. Various other pages add documentation of the associated AT_EMPTY_PATH flag.
  • A number of improvements have been made to the perf_event_open(2) (thanks once again to Vince Weaver), ptrace(2) (thanks once again to Denys Vlasenko), and ld.so(8) pages.
  • Various pages add information on thread-safety, thanks to the ongoing work of Peng Haitao.